Author Topic: Can anyone help translate this paper by Nakaseko from Japanese -> English?  (Read 1062 times)

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Offline jacobolus

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Direct link to the paper (pdf):

"Ergonomic contribution to keyboard design" by Masaru Nakaseko

Hopefully someone can do a better job than Google Translate:

* * *

Keyboard ergonomic design

Keyboard to be used, such as in the computer terminal and word
processor, 4-stage most of the key to the parallel of its,
Oh Rui it more array was off rat type key one baud Dodea Ru .QWERTY
type keyboard of all SANYO of the representative specific also, their
designations upper key alphabet characters from the left side of the
Q, W, E, R, T, is. this key array system that is derived from that the
unit is arranged in one of the top Y devised in 1873
Is, basic after that, as an international standard have been made
partial improvement, also has been popular as Japan industrial
standards. Mr. visible but et al, QWERTY type keyboard is the
mechanism of conventional mechanical type Writer because it is
designed to, key wasteful behavior many of blind touch method in the
hands and fingers to operate without looking, typing posture of or
keyboard can be either upper limb the hollow floating, shake the hand
finger When Align Ru to keys arranged in ~Tsu to surface
The required. Furthermore the constrained attitude that says, even in
the gas Bo soil than QWERTY arrangement, method to arrange the key in
parallel on the same plane, in the keyboard for Japanese not only for
American English Europe also, sparse be squid become character array
or character of the input method also, inevitably constrain the
orientation of the hand-arm system, and a strong static tension of
muscle groups that be involved in the operation and attitude
maintenance of keyboard give away
I said that.
Operation of standard keyboard of QWERTY array and health impairments
When I related Ni~tsui with harm, In Japan 1960 initial around
The keyboard worker from "tree Pancha disease" is Mirare
Good and Unina that is, the cause of its long time of continuous
repetition of the upper limb
And provision and Rikae use and static restraint attitude near Turkey
has been pointed out
For causal relationship between the gas was. Mr. However equipment,
and failure cornerstone of its
Ins Ri key structure near you want to require a large deal of pressing
pressure, is not a key board own problem 1) .1980 time years it has
been neglected
Sweden 2) of the pressure from Western developed countries,
Switzerland 3), West Germany 4), France 5), the United States 6) But,
reports related to local fatigue and 頸肩 arm failure of keyboard work
and 頸肩 arm is made, especially in Oath Torari~a and hopefully by the
RI (Repetition Injuries) 7), the anti-Fukuku Rikae work and
establishment of ergonomic preventive measures of restraint working
posture has become large problems. Also, most keyboard work and Ri
your stated will be given to the relevant failure even in the near ILO
report 8), is that has been emphasized the need for improvement of
various elements, including a character array of standard keyboard.
These research results, rather than unrelated and the operation and
health failure of keyboard, physical shape of the standard type
keyboard, character array system, its thickness or height, of the key
shape, press hands that are dependent on characteristics such as lower
pressure, and you are then strongly indicates 唆 that it is due to the
operation of the arms and trunk restraint working posture and
unnatural hand finger.
Design and development of the keyboard, large Betsu****e character of
the sequence on the keyboard, the physical shape of the tree Bo soil,
has been studied from the side of the input method of character, 9
Yamada for optimization of keyboard input) also as will be pointed
out, character array and character input method of the keyboard is
optimal of keyboard of physical shape of, standing on ergonomic design
Chi I nest Rutoie
Here, in Japan and not Europe and the US only become popular and standard
Type QWERTY trees overview related Nitsu stomach with Bo degrees and
working posture, and that the key Bo de basic attitude required for
the operation of are also bound by the physical shape not only the
character sequence was pointed out, new for the design and development
of Shii ergonomic keyboard
I want a basic requirement to clarify.

2. operation and orientation of the keyboard
Operation of the keyboard, and the greater-Mick operation attitude to
manipulate the key is based on this basis, are static posture or lines
cover that maintain da key attitude. Working posture of upper limb,
when the operation of the keyboard physical shape of the keyboard can
be, as .VDT work industry that cuts strongly bound me by the
placement, when the screen display devices, such as the input document
is used in addition to the keyboard, the work Gosugata
By strength Kuna Rutoie to energize the constraint of Hasa from
cormorants. This Kodewa, not touch the placement of equipment, and the
physical shape of the keyboard that distribution  column characters
in parallel to the same plane of conventional , I would like to point
out Te ergonomic defect Ni~tsui of its

2-1. Of hand-arm posture
Shown to by sea urchin in Figure 1, and trees
Attitude of Teyaude in Bo soil to character array of inevitably key
Become constrained form. In other words, the hand on the inside almost
90. Rotating, the state of being displaced outwardly around the same
time the wrist
Take a basic attitude to maintain, by key operations in La Shinano
hold Tomo cormorants static posture dorsiflexion of the wrist is
performed et al. Hitting like this
Fatigue of various muscle groups that be involved in the key attitude
is promoted depending on the key board operation, exercise pain for
long periods of continuous use in La, muscle with a motion disorder,
section cough, key, its the failure of other tissues
Onset and closely related have that 10, U of harm).
Experienced keyboard operators, somewhat to elevate the elbow in order
to as much as possible reduce the restraint attitude of hand, one Mari
Was allowed to abduction, although the attitude to reduce the angle of
ulnar deviation of hand mastered To natural, it can be said that not
only has shifted the burden to shoulder and other sites.
"Same plane on the QWERTY type keyboard arranged in a parallel key" of
ergonomically inadequacies, the keyboard operation
In the from pointing out research results of Rui cooker that about
Tomo intends working posture
Wear. That is, (1) of 271 persons of the operator of ulnar deviation
of companion jar hand to keyboard operation angle and is associated
with the local fatigue symptoms of forearm
In a study that examined the continuous, hands of ulnar deviation,
especially in the hands of the scale 屈角 degree 15-200 more than when
the forearm muscle groups of languor, Ya pain Mino symptoms
With Turkey significant increase of watching medical office indicate a
failure is observed, (2) In the electromyographic pictorial study of
ability of keypunch work, hand rotates inside for key board operation,
That is the hand-arm
Taking the attitude of pronation and Kedena rather that want to
increase in forearm muscle activity GaAkira Raka, 13 can be shown also
a marked increase in muscle activity of muscle groups of the upper arm
biceps and shoulders) , (3) sales together to typing work of the tree
Bo de hand-

Shoulder associated with the posture of the arm system, the arm of
electromyographic Fig studies, Hand
Scale of the hand What is Runi従 to increase the angle of the ulnar
deviation pronation and hands
Muscle activity of the upper arm that operates and the cooperation of
the side excursion is increased, the slope of the key board is more
than when the muscle activity is significantly increased in the
forearm 100
Addition to Rukoto 14), (4) in the gas-Bo de accompanied cormorant
magnitude of pronation angle of hand operation (almost 90 ) and the
studies that have examined the relationship between muscle activity of
the forearm, the keyboard operation square pronator muscle of the
forearm cooperating in pronation angle of the required hand, 橈
Gawatene flexor, the amount of activity muscle groups of pronator
teres, the maximum amount of activity of 40 to of their are these
muscle groups 80 % 15 to reach the level of), etc. are disclosed. this
is these results, ulnar deviation of the hand at the keyboard is an
array of keys in parallel, beauty hand Oyo bending hand scale
especially of Ri is greatly angle of pronation, the attitude you want
to operate at a position close to the limit of the physiological range
of motion of the section about you are deeply related to the fact that
is required and maintain. Also, such as this if the finger is operated
in a static posture, our deer, and "is the that's, the pain" to hand
arm it can be said that the fatigue-failure of is promoted.
2, using a skill tie piston that can keystroke 1 minute between the
per Ri least 100 times, results were the type of work for 30 minutes
That. In the standard type keyboard Cho correct changes in the
subjective symptoms, including the "pain" of hand-arm I have shown
that the current out in 15-20 minutes after the start of the key-entry
As mentioned above, to pursue optimization of the physical shape of
the physical shape and intended not light is Sshi brush muscle labor
burden of the upper limbs that be derived not name. The Bo de of the
conventional keyboard because
The, keyboard having a shape suitable for function and shape of the
hands and fingers, Kedena rather's character array, and mention the
key-entry operation of hand finger to the restraint attitude of
supporting example Ru upper limb, and the interaction of your body
function a comprehensive manner considered  for example, it can be
said that the evaluation worth it is important.

[ Figure 1 standard type keyboard based on this attitude that are
required for the entry operation of the soil ]

[ Figure 2 Changes in the subjective evaluation of "contingency
tonicity" of the tree Bo soil by that hand-arm continuously operation

2-2. Attitude of neck and trunk
Operation of the keyboard, including the place is it. And wanted to
operations and trunk posture of the keyboard, one Mari neck in the
sitting posture
It is necessary Ru also want to attention to the labor burden of back waist.
Maeda et al. 16), before 屈角 of the neck during the work of the
accounting machine operator,
Measuring the angle between the line and the vertical line that
connects the other words seventh cervical vertebra and the ear canal,
before 屈角 degree and have Obviously the Rukoto be increased Yes 訴率 of
pain Dal of the neck comes to 55 more that. Also, Sako et al medium
12), Ki Bo de work industry Tomo sales increased pain, fatigue and
exercise pain in the neck me follow the rotation of the angle of the
neck, was observed an increase in motion failure. keyboard excessive
forward bending and time-handed attitude of the neck by operation,
presumably resulting in an increase of fatigue and failure of the neck
It can.
Moreover, the attitude of the building frame the stem by the physical
shape of the keyboard
Affected is that has been Clearly and Turkey. During Sako et al. 17
and 18), using a desk that can adjust the keyboard to any height, has
been newly developed and standard type keyboard two split was to
compare the work attitude of the keyboard. when the support base that
the hand or forearm can be supported on the keyboard is given, working
posture in keyboard of the stomach deviation is selected posture of
tilting the trunk in the rear, the keyboard and high also is high made
that the results have been revealed. this than the standard height of
75cm of conventional types of work, very with the results of the scan
that site investigation about the working posture of VDT work industry
was Tsu line of Grandjean et al. 19) well matched are you. Chi I nest
and, using the height of the regulation can be desk, the optimal
keyboard height was determined from the 236 things example of VDT work
suppliers of 59 people mean to have observed that the 79cm. or was
Stammerjohn et al. 20)
In the experimental study, 94% of the experimental subjects 53 people
is the height 75cm or more above the keyboard, reported that 50% has
selected the top 79 cm or more.
By the time the good tone the height of the Uni-saku Gotsukue Sessu
height of Tteki over board by the Rukoto you can choose their own
workers, create suppliers
Found in textbooks of ergonomics to select "correct attitude" and
different attitude, the trunk blood match for you easy to posture the
keyboard operations that take a tilted digit position in the rear look
is Idasa Ri good. Or was, me due to taking the attitude of tilting the
building frame stem in the rear, good Ri that physiological burden
applied to the internal pressure and the spine between the
intervertebral disc is reduced to, that has been to an integer
Katachi-gai scientifically already clear 21-23).
Trunk take what attitude is, whether the operation of the tree Bo soil
is the name of, or do Tanasu should, and people between the
engineering keyboard
The sales by said to be one of the basic elements of the design of the
physical form.

3. new keyboard and character array
3-1. Character array Treetop Bo soil and physical shape
Keyboard design of the basic requirements showed factors should be
consideration Oite in design and development of the keyboard to the
keyboard of physical shape and character array near Ru. Table 1, the
keyboard design point of view is to arrange the keys on a roughly
classified into (1) the same plane in parallel, changing only the
character sequence, (2) the keyboard and physical form like the
changing, character array does not change, it can be classified into
three change the both (3) Yellow Bo soil physical shape and character
Recently, Sun Japanese input by keyboard is also increased in this,
mosquitoes Na kanji conversion (JIS standards) and Romaji Kanji
conversion two generations
Method, which is the table has been utilized, but key Bo de
development of gravel
Fumi has just begun. A Roman character kanji conversion input method
Standard QWERTY keys Bo de array to the doctor for a while that
Is, or, mosquitoes Na kanji conversion input method is the emergence
of the Japanese syllabary characters
The aft emphasis on the frequency, and Ru keyboard Dodea you arranged
characters to physical shape of a conventional keyboard in
consideration of the operation of the fingers.
In this sense, mosquitoes Na kanji conversion input method character
of usage, use of the hands, the flow of each use of the finger, use of
the Train of key, of Western conscious the amount of movement of the
hand-finger keyboard Les can be said to be the same as also tradition.

DSK it is evaluated in 1983 as a new standard of the United States
(Dvorak SimPlified Keyboard) are those that have been devised in 1935
- character array Treetop Bo soil, of English sentence A
Depending on the frequency of occurrence of alphabet, the frequency of
use of both hands Hitoshi
Limit of equilibrium muscle weak use of finger, but are determined by
considering the behavior of the fingers of a decrease in the amount of
movement of the hands, fingers, and about the attitude of the
companion cormorants hand-arm with the operation of the key board and
death and it has been mentioned
The above-mentioned keyboard, have displaced even a key on the same plane
Although adopted a method of arranged in parallel, based on the
fundamental principle of the design and development of the Soviet
emphasis is placed and etc. flying ho to improve typing speed, for the
character of the sequence on the keyboard is, (1 ) each of the hand
The sea urchin keying frequency by that corresponds to the muscle
strength thinking of each of the finger, (2) promote the balance of
keying frequency of the left and right hand, (3) Da criteria column
Degrees were the maximum, subsequent reference column to the next, and
are to be should be such that the order of columns in the pre-stages.
That is, the hands, arms "no
As much as possible to eliminate wasteful "operation, as long as
obtain Rutoi have to assuming the be or or operation of basic posture
(1) point of view from designed as was keyboard other keyboard QWERTY
array and DSK array of before mentioned of, MEIER array, WOLF-BECKERT
array, etc. nitrous Ru. The main character array of its me are shown
in Figure 3.
Figure 4 is a case of keyboard for recently developed document
creation and VDT work industry. Both these keyboard has been designed
in consideration the shape of the work posture and hand of hand-arm
Basic physical shape of the two split keyboard Klocken-
Due to the fact that from the proposal of berg24), trends in research
and development of recently are inclined to this. Also, Kke the
support part of the hand-arm,
It is shows the direction to reduce the burden of static posture. The
point of view of (2), for change to good Ru economic and educational
impact of QWERTY type character array is great, QWERTY type character
keyboard of the array to Ru Rukoto near to mitigate as much as
possible out of the hands and arms static muscle that involved in
attitude-behavior of the tension that attributable. Figure 4 Nakasako
from 17 shows on the left) , the left and right keyboard by dividing
the QWERTY type character array into two to be shaped for "ha"
The sea urchin place, it is inclined to respectively before or side
direction, the key is the two split key board was Unihai column by
that match integer to the shape of the hand. In addition, the support
base of the hand-arm is arranged that has been.
Keyboard design point of view of (3), K one keyboard (Kroe- mer), the
PCD-MALTRON key Bo de (Malt et al. 26))
In experiments comparing the .QWERTY type keyboard and K one keyboard
that is reflected, hitting key frequency, both the false answer rate
K- keyboard of performance is good, is Luo due to continuous-entry
operation "The pain" expression time has also been shown to be 25) to
delay. in addition, MALTRON keyboard employs a completely new
character array, the keyboard is divided into two parts type, key is
the array to the concave three-dimensionally, hand comparison of
.MALTRON key Bo soil and other keyboard of experimental results that
have been devised to match the operating position of the finger, when
the keying 100 English words that are used frequently, in MALTRON 90%
character and child Ru Oh at 44% in the reference column near Ru but
QWERTY of the number of times the one-step jump to Yue to Ru to move
the finger the key arrangement when you type a or 1 million words
document is available in QWERTY 82,200 times, when you compare the
keystrokes number of equilibrium. left right hand in the Tsu der only
321 times MALTRON, 57% left hand in QWERTY, right hand 43%, 44% and
are each Re Su in DVORAK, 56%, in MALTRON
43%, was 57%. These results, reduce as much as possible wasteful
behavior of hand, increase the typing of handedness, you are shown the
TURMERIC line the entry operation in close position to the basic
position, (3) of the visual point
Et al designed typical KROEMER array, MALTRON array, the array MARSAN
I shown in Figure 5.
At the same time the keyboard of a new Japanese input Ru is die table
to M-type keyboard. Re child advocate new Japanese input method that
is different from the traditional JIS standards and in alphabetical
order array, a two-minute split keyboard are adopted. Morita 27) will
reduce the total keystrokes required number of Kanji input by the new
Japanese input method, but has to be capable of high-speed input to
move alternately the left and right hands, M type keyboard Comparative
experiments with other keyboard has not been reported. However teeth,
is et in the lateral direction of inclination
And remembering, reduce static muscle tension in the hands of the
gyrus could expect. In addition, prototype keyboard shift key of hill
village 28), two split keyboard that was constellation breaks line key
in the middle of the keyboard
The you are adopted.
Physical form of the key board, the distance between Uniki board by
was shown in Figure 6, the other example if between two split dead
The angle of the distance and them, key Bo the slope of the soil, is
including Raniki over array, multi-dimensionally studied there is a
need Ru it. Mature kneaded to be operating in Leh data thus selected
was optimal keyboard conditions of 18), two front direction of the
divided each of the keyboard (X.) and the slope of the horizontal
direction (Z ) 10 , internal angle of the keyboard (y ) 25 , G key
is a group quasi key was Oh Tsu in the distance (D) 6.5cm of the H key
(left side of the keyboard) (right side of the key board).
Hand-arm of attitude and behavior or operation of the ease, speed,
since it is a keyboard to optimize the accuracy is by operation
Fatigue or failure has to that structure to a minimum, it must be the
maximum effect can be obtained by operating the minimal. Was but me,
Na unless have attributes such ze Na keyboard et al scientifically
evaluated for internal medicine, configure the keyboard
About to be required scientific basis of Ruarayuru attribute. Also,
and ergonomic design that matched the physical characteristics of the
Japanese, the labor medical point of view of the work attitude that
was immediately on the scene of labor or Lhamo there is no
consideration of Renebanara.

[ Table 1 ergonomic keyboard design factors -- can't seem to copy the
bits inside the table to translate them]

[ Figure 3 Alphanumeric characters and key arrangement. Under stage
sequences for German ]

[ Figure 4 Examples of keyboard that is near development ]

[ Figure 5 The shape of the two split keyboard and character array ]

[ Figure 6 Design and its basic variable of the shape of the keyboard ]

3-2. Numeric Kise ~Tsu To and function keys set
The keyboard, which is used in VDT work industry, and Ru digits Kise
~Tsu To and disadvantages ~Ankushi ~Yonkise ~Tsu Togaa.
Two there of adding machine type and phone-type sequence to the
sequence of numeric keys is, keyboard is in the soil of the lower left
to 1,2 for VDT work industry, 3, 4, 5, 6 middle stage, the upper stage
7, 8, 9 adder type is adopted
Speaking from that. Keyboard operating position, the first, numeric
key set should be any arrangement is Ki due designed out separately
from the other. Second, the thing of keyboard
In have physical shape and numbers array Nitsu was also ergonomically
re-evaluation, no Na et al to be considered. In addition, a design
that is suitable for the shape of the hands of the Japanese people
array of numbers soon over is desirable the Ieyo will. Neumann et al.
29) new array type in the form developed by the hands of the (upper
stage 7, 8, 9, middle stage 2, 3, 4, under stage left 6, 1 under its,
under stage right 0, and in the comparison of striking key rate of the
conventional adder type the array) 5 key of the bottom of its, is the
first day to day 7 When you and 100 real
About 300% calculated machine type Ken model type Ttei Ru such to
about 200% speed Kunar it is clarified
In addition, the non-~Ankushi ~Yonki set of key sequences are new, or
Tsu important issues of key board design. The Kise ~Tsu adoption of
this includes the frames down Doki, fatal Ri by the operations that
wrong answers results which may lead to. tooth However, sequence and
position of full ~Ankusho Nki set is diverse, as shown in. table 2.
the number of key also shows a trend of increasing key Bo the
magnitude of the entire soil quite large in comparison to the
magnitude of the traditional typewriter, an increase in fan function
key set is directly said that the binding Bi~tsui to an increase in
the magnitude of the keyboard. this trend of but have raised a number
of problems, if example has been limited to fan action key to dot and
I as possible out only to a small
And Ri all Kidea to no number of keys, the function of the key
sequences and key would-out standard standardized all.

4. In the work to manipulate the effectiveness keyboard and the need
for support of hands, arms, even at the input of the latency of
information of Nara not short  time during the work only, may be
necessary support base that can support the hand-arm cormorants.
Space to wear hand-arm in support is Ri came in secured on the desk
surface, key Bo de frame is large enough sometimes, between the sky of
Can be used as a support base of the hand-arm, that you can the burden
that written in the intervertebral disc of muscle specific burden and
spine of the upper limb and back waist at light reduction is being on
whether the Ming et al.
First, although while supporting the hands, arms operation of the
keyboard is whether carried out in the actual, desk top and the
Utilization as a support base of the frame is very rather high, VDT
The operator of research, that about 80% of workers to operate the
interactive terminal is utilized rather good has been Obviously
That 12).
Then, when I got to the context of the support and the waist of the
stress of the hand-arm, the effect of the support of the hands, arms,
working posture of building frame stem, different and greatly
depending on the size of the supporting surface of or hand-arm And no
Occhipinti et al. 30), that has been estimated the load between the
disc from biomechanical evaluation of the pressure and the moment
applied to the waist part intervertebral disc. The entire forearm Ri
support by the wrist only when you want to support, was or
When posture of the trunk in front of 傾座 posture by Ri upright sitting
posture, load of 推間 plate that has been shown to be mitigated Ri good.
In other words, if you can ensure the support of hands, arms,
supporting about 15% in an upright sitting posture load between
compared to the intervertebral plate that can not be di- conditions,
has been inferred if it is cut at a previous 傾座 position about 20-30%
mitigation in attitude. Also, the hand-arm of the support base
presence and the keyboard is high
When Ru good in electromyographic pictorial studies related to the,
for the interest of supporting Ji-dai hand-
Arm alone rather than the neck, shoulder, also in mitigation of static
muscle tone of the waist part I shows that 31) are binding Bitsui.
Figure 7 1 Ri that the example of the support base by newly developed
QWERTY type keyboard ergonomic design of were shown in. Two of the
left are those with integrated support base and keyboard part. In
addition, all of height of the keyboard (distance of key of desk top
and reference column) but that is low rather than design, the height
of the front end of the key board as possible the difference in level
between the desk surface by low Kusuru small If Sakusure, it is
considered to be available as a support base of the extension of the
hand, arms the desk top surface.
Pressure applied to the support base by the key-entry operation, the
different sizes of the support surface of the hands, arms, the shape
of the keyboard.
Each 10 in the front direction and the horizontal direction in order
to increase the support surface. Is tilted, the two split was as
before can support the whole arm
In a type keyboard, average support pressure of the hand-arm was Oh
Tsu in 19N in not supporting base Na can support only part of the 39N
wrist and forearm. In addition, the same as the slope in QWERTY-type
keyboard of conventional using the tilt Kino support base, average
support pressure of the front support stand that was to be able to
support the entire arm was 35N. When you compare the average support
pressure, Traditional much different in two split type not seen. was
However, two split supporting pressure through the key-entry operation
of 30 minutes in the keyboard was almost constant, but increases over
typing time by Traditional, after 15-20 minutes. abrupt the increase
And the. That is, conventional tired of hand-arm associated with the
entry operation appeared more quickly in, and Eyo beaten current is as
an increase in the pressure to ya trunk and support base depending on
the stoop of neck Te cormorants.
Although the show that these are research is effective support base
for you want to reduce the labor burden of keyboard operation, at the
same time
And implying basic elements needed to support base design.

[ Table 2 key Bo soil dimension and function key set ]

[ Figure 7 Ki one support base of the hand-arm key board and standard
key board Left: two split keyboard, Medium: supporting di Daitsu-out
QWERTY type keyboard, right: standard type keyboard ]

5. in place of the end
In Japan, the history of work with a focus on key board is rather
shallow, standard keyboard of Western, Oh Rui Yes the characters on
the same plane
Column was keyboard has become popular. Also, it is Ru new JIS
standards also deliberated Tei, keyboard of new standards, not only
contained the design concept of the US type and European traditional,
of Until now was fully reflect the research  achievements, ergonomic
Ri good, and be in-out and saying have Kaere if by Ri used yea be
faster, physical shape of small no keyboard of good Ri labor burden
and character array der Rube cormorants in. Furthermore, work
To understand the fact that you saw finger failure, the frequent
occurrence of neck Kataude failure to travelers, its prevention and
good Ri comfortable work in order to disturb raw, this Renika
alternative human psychology and physiological, and solution 剖学
disadvantages grasps the limit to ten minutes, to withstand the "If Ki
is" labor medical evaluation of field that are actually used for those
with an only lever of Rana physician. Furthermore to assist also
required between person and be said to have been



Offline islisis

  • Posts: 119
  • Location: Tokyo, Japan
Re: Can anyone help translate this paper by Nakaseko from Japanese -> English?
« Reply #1 on: Sun, 08 February 2015, 19:03:35 »
would you be satisfied with a piece-wise translation? for completeness i can translate the entire document over time, but only when i can fit it in. name a few sections you are mostly interested in and i'll start

Offline intelli78

  • Posts: 1503
  • Location: Seattle
Re: Can anyone help translate this paper by Nakaseko from Japanese -> English?
« Reply #2 on: Sun, 08 February 2015, 19:04:50 »
Yeah, you're asking for a significant amount of work. Maybe just try the abstract first...
Please consider carefully before you decide to comment, for Jesus.

Offline jacobolus

  • Thread Starter
  • Posts: 3642
  • Location: San Francisco, CA
Re: Can anyone help translate this paper by Nakaseko from Japanese -> English?
« Reply #3 on: Sun, 08 February 2015, 20:09:51 »
I would be more than satisfied with any tiny bit you want to do, however small. After all, this is a volunteer job. Thanks in advance!

Offline intelli78

  • Posts: 1503
  • Location: Seattle
Re: Can anyone help translate this paper by Nakaseko from Japanese -> English?
« Reply #4 on: Sun, 08 February 2015, 20:15:37 »
would you be satisfied with a piece-wise translation? for completeness i can translate the entire document over time, but only when i can fit it in. name a few sections you are mostly interested in and i'll start

Can you maybe summarize the introduction and conclusion?
Please consider carefully before you decide to comment, for Jesus.

Offline islisis

  • Posts: 119
  • Location: Tokyo, Japan
Re: Can anyone help translate this paper by Nakaseko from Japanese -> English?
« Reply #5 on: Mon, 09 February 2015, 09:30:19 »
[edit: OK, no one seems to be interested in the topic so I'll just leave it as is. Thanks]

1. Introduction

This is an explanation of terms well familiar in computer ergonomics today, various layout locales, dimensions, stresses on the body and claims the development of keyboards have stood on these principles. The paper's aims are to highlight the problems of Western keyboard design in Japan's environment and the ergonomic developments toward solving these problems.

2. Keyboard Operation and Posture

This section introduces problems with the flat single-boarded keyboards designed without reference to the other components of the workstation. 2-1 discusses the hand and arm related physical problems resulting from extended keyboard use. It claims that a flat, parallel keyboard design introduces defieciencies revealable by research, namely that electromyogram results demonstrate the pain and fatigue in the forearms when angled to the hands greater than 15~20 deg. The combination of severe increases of muscle activity at angles to the keyboard greater than 10 deg, 90 deg pronation of the hands and forearm movement results in a level of 40~80% of the standard maximum exertion rate. Experienced typists will feel this pain after around 15~20 mins.

2-2 addresses neck and body position, namely in relation to the height of keyboard and how workers chose to raise it from the standard at the time of 75cm to 79cm when using an adjustable desk, showing the need to study its ergonomic requirements.

3. New Keyboards and Layouts

3-1 begins by introducing new keyboard designs, classifying them into single-board and ergonomic shaped, and of the programmable and non-programmable variety. The author notes the spreading of Japanese input methods, such as kana and romaji based conversion systems as being only the beginning. He then outlines different key layouts in Western use, and their various frequency attributes. He mentions the then future-proposed M-shiki keyboard, which promised less conversion strokes and better hand alternation than existing systems, as well as a sloped design, reducing stationary arm tension. Some dimensions of ergonomic board placement are outlined with diagrams.

3-2 Talks about function key sets (columns) and their desired roles, and emphasises the need for them to be standardised and minimised in number.

4. Importance and Efficiency of Hand and Arm Support

This section discusses how, for a large-enough keyboard case,  built-in support can alleviate the burden on upper arms, waist and back. Studies show that keyboard rests are used up to 80% of the time in work environments, and relieve tension on the intervertebral disk around 15% when sitting straight and 20~30% when leaning forward compared to no given support. They also relieve tension from stationary posture in the neck, shoulder and waist muscles.

A comparision of a split keyboard and single-board 'future qwerty keyboard', both with in-built arm rests, seen left and centre in the figure is made. The split keyboard supported 39N pressure from wrist and 19N from the part of the forearm, not differing greatly to the 35N of wrist pressure supported by the 'future keyboard'. However, tests showed that while the pressure support from the split keyboard was constant during a test session, it rose suddenly after 15~20 mins on the 'future keyboard', indicating that tired hands and wrists were causing users to lean their body and neck forward over time.

5. Conclusion

The author summarises by saying in the short history of keyboard-centred working conditions the Western standard single-board flat keyboard has become dominant. Also, while still under proposal new JIS standards seek to not only implement Western ideas, but create an ergonomic physical design and character layout in response to  research to date. Finally, it is important to not focus on improving the performance of humans in the workplace, but also to understand our weaknesses and limits psychologically and anatomically. All this must be stand up to scrutiny in real-world workplace medical evaluations.
« Last Edit: Fri, 13 February 2015, 09:50:47 by islisis »

Offline islisis

  • Posts: 119
  • Location: Tokyo, Japan
Re: Can anyone help translate this paper by Nakaseko from Japanese -> English?
« Reply #6 on: Mon, 09 February 2015, 09:41:31 »
semi-related is this design overview i came across of the Tron M-size